Land transport refers to activities of physical movement of goods and passengers on land. This movement takes place on road, rail, rope or pipe. So land transport may further be divided into Road transport, Rail transport, Ropeway transport, pipeline transport. Let us know the details about each of them.
a. Road Transport
Roads are the means that connect one place to another on the surface of the land. You must have seen roads in your village, in towns and cities. Not all of them look alike. Some of them are made of sand and some may be of chips and cement or coaltar. You find different vehicles plying on roads like bullock carts, cycles, motorcycles, cars, truck, buses, etc. All of these constitute different means of road transport. The means of road transport may be divided into three types: -
i. Man driven;
ii. Animal driven; and
iii. Motor driven.
b. Rail transport
Transportation of goods and passengers on rail lines through trains is called rail transport. It occupies an important place in land transport system of our country and is the most dependable mode of transport to carry goods and passengers over a long distance. Besides long distance, local transport of passengers is also provided by local trains or metro-rail in some metropolitan cities. Rail transport is available throughout the country except some hilly or mountainous regions. In India two types of trains are found. One is passenger train and other is goods train. While passenger trains carry both human beings and a limited quantity of goods, the goods trains are exclusively used for carrying goods from one place to another. These trains are driven by rail engines and they use steam, diesel or electric power to move. Let us now discuss the advantages and limitations of rail transport.
c. Pipelines transport
In modern times, pipelines are used for various purposes. Water supply to residential and commercial areas is carried on with the help of pipeline. Petroleum and natural gas are also transported from one place to another through pipelines. This is the most convenient as well as economical mode of transport for petroleum as well as natural gas in comparison to road and rail transport, provided the volume to be transported is large. But the cost of installation and maintenance requires large capital investment.
d. Ropeway transport
Ropeway refers to a mode of transport, which connects two places on the hills, or across a valley or river. In the hilly areas, trolleys move on wheels connected to a rope and are used for carrying passengers or goods, especially building materials, food, etc. The famous “Uran Khatola Jagdamba” in Gujarat that carries pilgrims to the temple is an example of ropeway transport, which carries more than 100 passengers at a time.