Agriculture, or farming, is the simplification of nature's food webs and the rechanneling of energy for human planting and animal consumption.
Agriculture, also called farming or husbandry is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life.
Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the development of civilization.
All farming generally relies on techniques to expand and maintain the lands suitable for raising domesticated species. For plants, this usually requires some form of irrigation, although there are methods of dry land farming; pastoral herding on rangeland is still the most common means of raising livestock. In the developed world, industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture has become the dominant system of modern farming, although there is growing support for sustainable agriculture, e.g. organic agriculture.
Modern agronomy, plant breeding, pesticides and fertilizers, and technological improvements have sharply increased yields from cultivation, but at the same time have caused widespread ecological damage and negative human health effects.